The polymeric permiselective membranes application for immunoisolation of cells separating the transplanted cells from the host immunological system may eliminate immunosuppressive therapy during transplantation. The suitability of polyelectrolyte modified nanocoatings for immunoisolation of cells was assessed. The polymeric shells modified with incorporated fullerene derivate were applied for encapsulation of human T-lymphocyte cell line Jurkat or rat pancreatic islets of Langerhans using layer-by-layer technique. Hydroxylated fullerene was incorporated to the polyelectrolyte shell for hydrophility increase as well as for layer stability improvement. Evaluation with AFM, FTIR, fluorescence microscopy confirmed the nanocoating presence on the encapsulated cells. It was observed that polylysine-polyethyleneimine membrane with incorporated fullerenol allowed for encapsulated cells functioning in vitro. Membrane conformation applied for encapsulation of pancreatic rat islets allowed for glucose level decline during xenotransplantation into mice. The elaborated nanocoating may be recommended as the possible alternative to the space consuming microencapsulation for biomedical purposes.