The aim of the present study was to produce monoclonal anti-fullerene C(60) antibodies and to develop the enzyme immunoassay for the detection in the first use of free fullerene C(60) both in solutions and in multicomponent biological probes. The immunization of mice with the conjugate of fullerene C(60) carboxylic derivative with thyroglobulin synthesized by carbodiimide activation led to the production of eight clones of anti-fullerene antibodies. The specificity of the antibody-fullerene binding was confirmed. Indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the determination of water-soluble protein-conjugated fullerene, the fullerene aminocaproic acid, fullerenol and for pristine fullerene in solution. To solubilize extremely hydrophobic free fullerene C(60) a specially selected water-organic mixture compatible with immunoassay was proposed. The detection limit of free fullerene C(60) in solution was 2 μg L(-1). Fullerene C(60) was also detected by ELISA in organ homogenates of rats intraperitoneally or intragastrically administered with fullerene. To reduce the influence of biomatrices on the assay results a technique was developed for the biological sample pretreatment by the extraction of C(60) from bioprobe by toluene followed by the evaporation of toluene and dissolution of the fullerene-containing extract in the selected water-organic media. The ELISA procedure in the first use allowed the detection of fullerene C(60) in different tissues.