Nanomaterials (NM) industry had grown in the last decade, although there are few studies concerning its potential toxicity effects on aquatic organisms. In this study the freshwater zebrafish (Danio rerio) was exposed to two kinds of carbon NM, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and fullerenol [C60(OH)18-22(OK4)] to analyze oxidative stress responses on fish brain. Adult zebrafish (mean mass: 0.52±0.01g) were submitted to intraperitoneal injections of SWCNT suspension and fullerenol solution (30mg/kg of fish), receiving one or two doses with a time interval of 24h. Results showed that total antioxidant capacity was lowered in brains of fish exposed 24h to fullerenol when compared to those from SWCNT treatment (p<0.05). After 48h, fullerenol induced higher expression of both catalytic and regulatory subunits of enzyme glutamate cysteine ligase when compared to control group (p<0.05), indicating an antioxidant behavior. In vitro assays showed a dual effect of SWCNT, since a pro-oxidant behavior was observed at low concentrations (0.1 and 1.0mg/L) and an antioxidant one at the highest concentration (10.0mg/L). Few biological responses were altered by this NM: decrease in total antioxidant capacity and induction of the expression of the transcription factor Nrf2 when compared to control group.