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Metallofullerene nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells through BMP signaling pathway

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Although endohedral metallofullerenol [[email protected](82)(OH)(22)](n) nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [[email protected](82)(OH)(22)](n) nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [[email protected](82)(OH)(22)](n) nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [[email protected](82)(OH)(22)](n) nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [[email protected](82)(OH)(22)](n) nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis.

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