Fullerenol is similar to graphite in terms of structure. In the present study, the anti-aging effect of fullerenol on skin through derived stem cells in a mouse model was assessed and the potential mechanism of fullerenol was investigated. The anti-aging effect of fullerenol effectively inhibited the retention rate of transplanted adipose-derived stem cells and increased the thickness of the dermal portion of skin and collagen ratio in mice. The effect of fullerenol on the proliferation of stem cells was observed. Treatment with fullerenol effectively promoted the mRNA expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in a mouse model of skin aging induced by D-galactose. However, fullerenol treatment effectively suppressed the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and increased forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) protein expression in the mice model of skin aging induced by D-galactose. These results demonstrate that the anti-aging effect of fullerenol on skin through derived stem cells may be mediated in mice via the PPAR-γ/FoxO1 signaling pathway.