Intrinsic Biotaxi Solution Based on Blood Cell Membrane Cloaking Enables Fullerenol Thrombolysis In Vivo
We report the construction of blood cell membrane cloaked mesoporous silica nanoparticles for delivery of nanoparticles [fullerenols (Fols)] with fibrinolysis activity which endows the active Fol with successful thrombolysis effect in vivo. In vitro, Fols present excellent fibrinolysis activity, and the Fol with the best fibrinolysis activity is screened based on the correlation between Fols' structure and their fibrinolysis activity. However, the thrombolytic effect in vivo is not satisfactory. To rectify the unsatisfactory situation and avoid the exogenous stimuli, a natural blood cell membrane cloaking strategy with loading the active Fol is chosen to explore as a novel thrombolysis drug. After cloaking, the therapeutic platform prolongs blood circulation time and enhances the targeting effect. Interestingly, compared with platelet membrane cloaking, red blood cell (RBC) membrane cloaking demonstrates stronger affinity with fibrin and more enrichment at the thrombus site. The Fol with RBC cloaking shows quick and efficient thrombolysis efficacy in vivo with less bleeding risk, more excellent blood compatibility, and better biosafety when compared with the clinical drug urokinase (UK). These findings not only validate the blood cell membrane cloaking strategy as an effective platform for Fol delivery on thrombolysis treatment, but also hold a great promising solution for other active nanoparticle deliveries in vivo.