Metallofullerene nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells through BMP signaling pathway
Although endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C(82)(OH)(22)](n) nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [Gd@C(82)(OH)(22)](n) nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [Gd@C(82)(OH)(22)](n) nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [Gd@C(82)(OH)(22)](n) nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [Gd@C(82)(OH)(22)](n) nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis.