Electrochemiluminescent Detection of Proteins Based on Fullerenols Modified Gold Nanoparticles and Triple Amplification Approaches
In this work, fullerenols were found to be able to enhance the ECL signals of the luminol and H2O2 system and were employed for the first time as a reducing, catalyzing, and stabilizing agent in the one-step fast synthesis of fullerenols@AuNPs in only 5 min. First, the prepared fullerenols@AuNPs were applied to fabricate a label-free immunosensor for the detection of human cardiopathy biomarker (cardiac troponin I, cTnI). Second, using the fullerenols@AuNPs as biolabels to establish a sandwich-type immunosensor and catalyzing in situ copper-stained reaction to generate Cu particles capped on the fullerenols@AuNPs, and then a novel electrochemical stripping chemiluminescent (ESCL) method was developed for detection of cTnI and IgG with about 20 times more sensitive than the former one. At the process of ESCL detection, Cu2+was stripped from Cu@fullerenols@AuNPs with significant increase of the ECL signals. This can be attributed to the fact that the fullerenols@AuNPs nanoparticles and the Cu2+ have excellent conductivity and could facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to generate various reactive oxygen species (ROSs), thereby accelerating the ECL process. Both immunosensors show high sensitivity and selectivity to cTnI and IgG detection with a wide linear range from fg/mL to ng/mL and the low limits of detection down to fg/mL for cTnI and IgG, respectively.